First, descriptive functions of one’s analysis players from the sex was presented once the rates the help of its particular 95% depend on period (CI)

First, descriptive functions of one’s analysis players from the sex was presented once the rates the help of its particular 95% depend on period (CI)

Sociodemographic functions provided racial worry about-category (white or non-white elizabeth.g. black, brown, yellow, or local), host to home (urban or outlying), schooling (0–cuatro, 5–8, 9–eleven, otherwise ? twelve age), and you will monthly home earnings per capita in the tertiles (reasonable, middle, or high). Brand new urban–outlying group are in accordance with the strategies employed by the latest Brazilian Institute away from Geography and you can Analytics (in the Portuguese, IBGE) inside the 2010 populace census off management constraints set out because of the regional regulations. Within per municipality’s borders, this type of regional rules introduce an imaginary range named “urban fringe”. Brand new census tracts betydelig hyperkobling located inside the “urban fringe” try termed urban, whereas the remaining section is appointed rural. The other suggestions was acquired because of a face-to-deal with interview at the participant’s family.

Anthropometric details

Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight (< 18.5> 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (

Analytical analysis

Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p < 0.20>


Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).

The characteristics of the research professionals of the sex can be seen inside Desk step one. In sexes, really participants was indeed low-white, lived in the newest urban area, had 0–4 many years of education, and showed increased sides width. About the Body mass index, fat try the most frequent group for men (42.9%), if you find yourself heavy and you can being obese had nearly equivalent wavelengths for women (thirty six.9% and you will thirty-five.4%, respectively). Regarding persistent sickness, forty-two.1% out of users said with a healthcare medical diagnosis regarding arterial blood pressure, 17.4% off diabetes mellitus, 11.5% from weakening of bones, 7.4% away from cardio ailment (angina, myocardial infarction, and heart incapacity), and you can 5.7% out of breathing illness (asthma and persistent obstructive pulmonary situation).